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Absent menstrual periods - secondary

Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary

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Absence of a woman's monthly menstrual period is called amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhea is when a woman who has been having normal menstrual cycles stops getting her periods for 6 months or longer.

Causes

Secondary amenorrhea can occur due to natural changes in the body. For example, the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea is pregnancy. Breastfeeding and menopause are also common, but natural, causes.

Women who take birth control pills or who receive hormone shots such as Depo-Provera may not have any monthly bleeding. When they stop taking these hormones, their periods may not return for more than 6 months.

You are more likely to have absent periods if you:

  • Are obese
  • Exercise too much and for long periods of time
  • Have very low body fat (less than 15% to 17%)
  • Have severe anxiety or emotional distress
  • Lose a lot of weight suddenly (for example, from strict or extreme diets or after gastric bypass surgery)

Other causes include:

Also, procedures such as a dilation and curettage (D and C) can cause scar tissue to form. This tissue may cause a woman to stop menstruating. This is called Asherman syndrome. Scarring may also be caused by some severe pelvic infections.

Symptoms

In addition to having no menstrual periods, other symptoms can include:

  • Breast size changes
  • Weight gain or weight loss
  • Discharge from the breast or change in breast size
  • Acne and increased hair growth in a male pattern
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Voice changes

If amenorrhea is caused by a pituitary tumor, there may be other symptoms related to the tumor, such as vision loss and headache.

Exams and Tests

A physical exam and pelvic exam must be done to check for pregnancy. A pregnancy test will be done.

Blood tests may be done to check hormone levels, including:

Other tests that may be performed include:

Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause of amenorrhea. Normal monthly periods most often return after the condition is treated.

A lack of menstrual period due to obesity, vigorous exercise, or weight loss may respond to a change in exercise routine or weight control (gain or loss, as needed).

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outlook depends on the cause of amenorrhea. Many of the conditions that cause secondary amenorrhea will respond to treatment.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

See your primary health care provider or women's health care provider if you have missed more than one period so that you can get diagnosed and treated, if needed.

References

Bulun SE. Physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17.

Lobo RA. Primary and secondary amenorrhea and precocious puberty: etiology, diagnostic evaluation, management. In: Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 38.

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  • Secondary amenorrhea

    Secondary amenorrhea

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  • Normal uterine anatomy (cut section)

    Normal uterine anatomy (...

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  • Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea)

    Absence of menstruation ...

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    • Secondary amenorrhea

      Secondary amenorrhea

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    • Normal uterine anatomy (cut section)

      Normal uterine anatomy (...

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    • Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea)

      Absence of menstruation ...

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    Review Date: 4/19/2018

    Reviewed By: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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